Flipping the classroom for higher education learners to improve productive and receptive skills / Invertir la clase con estudiantes universitarios para mejorar las destrezas productivas y receptivas

Palabras clave: Aula Invertida; ILE; Turismo; Quejas de Clientes; Habilidades Profesionales.


Este estudio examina la capacidad de los estudiantes de Turismo para abordar las quejas de clientes utilizando el enfoque de aula invertida combinado con la implementación del programa en línea VoiceThread. El estudio se llevó a cabo con un grupo de 49 estudiantes ILE en el Grado de Turismo en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. El estudio se llevó a cabo en 3 fases: (1) a los estudiantes se les proporcionó material en Campus Virtual con expresiones útiles relacionadas con las quejas de clientes, que los estudiantes debían consultar antes de la siguiente clase. (2) En el laboratorio de idiomas, los estudiantes debían escuchar una queja de un cliente y darle una respuesta satisfactoria mediante grabación de su propia voz. (3) Para recabar información sobre la opinión que tenían de esta actividad experimental, a los estudiantes se les pidió que cumplimentaran un cuestionario Google. En general, los resultados del estudio han demostrado el impacto positivo de este método en el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje en las clases de ILE para los estudiantes de turismo, contribuyendo a su motivación y al desarrollo de sus habilidades profesionales.



This study examines the ability of Tourism students to deal with customer complaints by using the flipped classroom approach combined with the implementation of the online VoiceThread programme. The study was carried out with a group of 49 EFL students in the Degree of Tourism at the University Complutense of Madrid. The study was carried out in 3 phases: (1) students were provided with audio material containing some useful expressions related to customers’ complaints. This material was made available on the Virtual Platform (Campus Virtual) so students could consult it as they needed before the following class. (2) In the computing room, students were asked to listen to a customer complaint and to give a solution by recording their own voices. (3) In order to gather students’ opinions about this experimental activity, students were asked to fill in a Google form questionnaire. Overall, the results of the study have shown the positive impact of this method on the teaching/learning process in the EFL classes for Tourism students, contributing to their motivation and development of their professional skills

 Keywords: flipped classroom; EFL; tourism; customer complaints; professional skill


Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(1), 1-14.

Berrett, D. (2012). How 'flipping 'the classroom can improve the traditional lecture. The Education Digest, 78(1), 36.

Brewer, B. (2007). Citizen or customer? Complaints handling in the public sector. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 73(4), 549-556.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage (Vol. 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and Tourism management. 20 years on and 10 years after the internet – the state of eTourism research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-23.

Chen, Y. S., Chen, C. Y. D., & Chang, M. H. (2011). American and Chinese complaints: Strategy use from a cross-cultural perspective. Intercultural Pragmatics, 8(2), 253–275

Cohen, A. D., & Olshtain, E. (1981). Developing a measure of sociocultural competence: The case of apology. Language learning, 31(1), 113-134.

Davidow, M. (2003). Organizational responses to customer complaints: What works and what doesn’t. Journal of Service Research, 5(3), 225-250.

Davis, N. L. (2016). Anatomy of a flipped classroom, Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 16(3), 228-232. DOI: 10.1080/15313220.2015.1136802.

Dede, C. (2008). New Horizons: A seismic shift in epistemology. EDUCAUSE Review, 43(3), 80–81.

Delich, P. (2005). Pedagogical and interface modifications: what instructors change after teaching online. Malibu: Pepperdine University.

Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14-27.

Fidgeon, P. R (2010). Tourism education and curriculum design: A time for consolidation and review? Tourism Management, 31(6), 699-72.

Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out: Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8), 12-17.

Galway, L. P., Corbett, K. K., Takaro, T. K., Tairyan, K., & Frank, E. (2014). A novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. BMC medical education, 14(1), 181. Available at https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1472-6920-14-181 [Last retrieved June 2018].

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: essays on face-to-face interaction. Oxford: Aldine.

Gruber, T., Szmigin, I., & Voss, R. (2009). Handling customer complaints effectively: A comparison of the value maps of female and male complainants. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 19(6), 636-656.

Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robison, A. J. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Chicago, IL: The MacArthur Foundation.

Mull, B. (2012, March 29) Flipped learning: A response to five common criticisms. November Learning. http://novemberlearning.com/resources/articles/flippedlearning-a-response-to-five-common-criticisms article. [Last retrieved June 2018].

Murphy, Beth & Joyce Neu. (1996). My grade’s too low: The speech act set of complaining. In Susan M. Gass & Joyce Neu (eds.), Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communicate in a second language (pp. 191–216). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Murphy, J., Kalbasca, N., Cantoni, L., Horton-Tognazzini, L., Ryan, P. & Williams, A. (2017). Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in hospitality and tourism. In P. Benckendorff & A. Zehrer (Eds), Handbook of Teaching and Learning in Tourism (pp. 154-172). Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (Mass, USA): Edward Elgar Publishing.

Musarat, Y., Sarkar, M. & Sohail, M. (2016) Exploring English Language Needs in the Hotel Industry in Pakistan: An Evaluation of Existing Teaching Material. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 28(4), 202-213. DOI: 10.1080/10963758.2016.1226846.

O´Flaherty & Philips (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and higher education, 25, 85-95.

Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1983). Apology: A speech act set. In Nessa Wolfson (ed.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 18-35). Boston: Newbury House.

Olshtain, E., & Weinbach, L. (1987). Complaints: A study of speech act behavior among native and non-native speakers of Hebrew. In J. Verschueren, & M. Bertucelli-Papi (Eds.), The Pragmatic Perspective (pp. 195-208). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints, and apologies (Vol. 7). Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Yildiz, M., McNeal, K., & Salika, L. (2009). The power of social interaction technologies in teacher education. Paper presented at the National Educational Computing Conference, Washington, DC.
Cómo citar
Calle Martínez, C. (2019). Flipping the classroom for higher education learners to improve productive and receptive skills / Invertir la clase con estudiantes universitarios para mejorar las destrezas productivas y receptivas. TEJUELO. Didáctica De La Lengua Y La Literatura. Educación / TEJUELO. Didactics of Language and Literature. Education, 31, 77-96. https://doi.org/10.17398/1988-8430.31.77